The unit of ownership of a company is usually referred to as a "share." All shares in a company have equal power also called as equity representation in the company's capital structure. The owners of shares are called "shareholders." The distribution of shares in a company indicates the distribution of ownership in the company.
A share's value in a company or an investment is based on the price at which a share is sold in the market. One basic measure of a company's worth is market value, which is the number of outstanding shares multiplied by the price of a share.
A share market is where shares are either issued or traded in.
A stock market is similar to a share market. The key difference is that a stock market helps you trade financial instruments like bonds, mutual funds, derivatives as well as shares of companies. A share market only allows trading of shares.
The key factor is the stock exchange – the basic platform that provides the facilities used to trade company stocks and other securities. A stock may be bought or sold only if it is listed on an exchange. Thus, it is the meeting place of the stock buyers and sellers.
THERE ARE TWO KINDS OF SHARE MARKETS – PRIMARY AND SECOND MARKETS.
Primary Market: This where a company gets registered to issue a certain number of shares and raise money. This is also called getting listed in a stock exchange. A company enters primary markets to raise capital. If the company is selling shares for the first time, it is called an Initial Public Offering (IPO). The company thus becomes public.
Secondary Market: Once new securities have been sold in the primary market, these shares are traded in the secondary market. This is to offer a chance for investors to exit an investment and sell the shares. Secondary market transactions are referred to trades where one investor buys shares from another investor at the prevailing market price or at whatever price the two parties agree upon. Normally, investors conduct such transactions using an intermediary such as a broker, who facilitates the process.
By virtue of being a public company, the company is now liable to disclose all information related to the company to the public.